1) What is Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) ?

CSS is used for applying the styles for the HTML elements. So in a typical HTML document CSS will be applied to complete document for styling the elements.

2) What does “Cascading” in CSS mean?
“Cascading” refers to the cascading order in HTML document. This will sort the declared CSS in an order to avoid the conflicts.
3) What are the different types of CSS?
Below are the different types of CSS –
  • Embedded – Adding the CSS styles in <style> attribute.
  • Inline – Adding the CSS to the HTML elements.
  • Linked/External – Adding the External CSS file to the HTML document.

4) Explain the advantages of CSS?

Below are some of the advantages of CSS –

  • Accessibility
  • Multiple Device Compatibility
  • Page will load fast
  • Maintenance is Easy
  • Offline Browsing

5) List out the components of CSS style?

Below are the different components of CSS styles –

  • Property
  • Selector
  • Value

6) Explain type selector in CSS?

Type selector matches the element of specific type. To give the color for all inputs with text types, we can do like this.

input[type="text"]{
 color: #b2bfc7;
}

7) Explain universal selector in CSS?

Universal selectors is used to match any element types. Below is the example for the same. For example,

* { 
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

This rule is used to render the content of all elements in our document in white.

8) Explain descendant selector in CSS?

Descendant selectors are used when any style to be applied to an element when the element lies inside some element. For example,

ul em {
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

As shown above style applied to element – “<em>” when it lies inside “<li>”.

9) Explain id selector in CSS?

Id selector is used to apply the style to an element based on the “id” of an element. For example,

#elementId {
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

In the above code snippet all the elements having id – “elementId” will have the color white.

10) Explain class selector in CSS?

Class selector is used to apply the style to an element based on the “class name” of an element. For example,

.elementClassName {
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

In the above code snippet all the elements having class name – “elementClassName” will have the color white.

11) Is it possible to make a class selector for a particular element? If so How?

Yes we can make a class selector for a particular element. Below is the example for the same –

h2.myelementClassName {
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

Above example depicts whenever class name – “myelementClassName” found under element “h2” apply white color.

12) How to use external style sheets?

External style sheets will be used to refer the style information from the external file. In HTML document this can be used to refer in the <HEAD> section like below –
<Head> 
 <Link rel=”stylesheet” href="/MyTestStyle.css" type="text/css"> 
</ Head >

13) Explain “Atrribute Selector” in CSS?
Attribute selector can be used to apply a style for an HTML element with particular attribute. Example gien below is used to apply a style for input element with particular attribute (text)
input[type = "text"]{
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}
14) Is CSS a case-sensitive or case-insensitive?

CSS is case insensitive.

15) Which property will be used for changing the face of font in CSS?

“font family” property can be used for changing the face of font.

16) How to use grouping in CSS?

Grouping is mainly used for applying css style for multiple HTML elements and this can be done with single declaration. Example gien below is the example of the grouping –

h2, h3 
{ 
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

17) Explain child selector in CSS?

Child selectors can be used for applying the style for parent element and this will descend to the child elements. Below is the example –

body > input{
 color: #FFFFF1;
}

Above example is used for applying the white color to all the inputs which are lying in body tag.

18) What is the to use “float” property in CSS?

Float property is used to allow an HTML element to be positioned horizontally. Float property can take the values either “left” or “right”. For example,

h1, h2
{
 float: right; 
}

19) Which property is used to control the position in the background for image?

“background-position” property can be used for controlling the position of the image in background.

20) How do you write a conditional statement in CSS? Give an example.

Below is the example of writing a conditional statement in CSS –

<style type=”text/css”>
body
{
 color: #00BFFF;
}
</style>
<!—if [ IE 8] >
<style type=”text/css”>
body
{
 Background-color: #00FFBF;
}
</style>
<! [end if] -->

The above code snippet will change the background color to “00FFBF” if the browser is IE 8 or will have a default color if its other browsers.

21) Mention the property name which is used for making the font oblique in CSS?

“font-style” property can be used for making the font oblique.

22) List out the media types in CSS?

Below are the list of media types in CSS –

  • All
  • Screen
  • Print
  • Projection
  • Embossed
  • Tty
  • Tv

23) List all the font attributes in CSS?

Below are the list of font attributes –
  • Font-Variant
  • Font-Family
  • Caption
  • Font-Style
  • Font-Size
  • Icon

24) How we can eliminate the color border around the linked images in web page in CSS?
“border: none;“ is the style that can be used to eliminate the border of linked image.

25) List out the elements of CSS Box modal?

Below are the elements of CSS Box modal –

  • Border
  • Margin
  • Content
  • Padding
26) What is the use of z-index in CSS?

Z-Index is used to avoid the overlapping of the elements. Default value of z-index is 0 and it will take positive and negative values as well.

27) How to lighten the font weight in CSS?

“font-weight” property can be used for lightening the font weight in CSS.

28) Which css property is used for setting the type of cursor in CSS?

Property – “cursor” is used for setting the type of cursor.

29) List out any 5 properties of cursor in CSS?

Below are the list of properties of cursor –

  • Pointer
  • Help
  • Wait
  • Hand
  • Crosshair

30) List out some of the properties in added in CSS3?

Below are the some of the properties in CSS3-

  • Border Images
  • New Web fonts
  • Multi Column layout
  • Box Shadows
  • Text Shadows
  • Transform property

31) What is the difference between inline and block elements in CSS?

Block elements will leave a space before and after the element and it uses full width available. Eg: <div>, <h1>

Inline elements will take only the required width. Eg: <span>, <a>

32) List out main properties of CSS style sheets?

Below are some of main properties in CSS style sheets –

  • Text
  • Font
  • Border
  • Padding
  • Table
  • List
  • Background
  • Margin

33) What is the difference between “display:none” and “visibility:hidden” in CSS?

  • “Display:none” – This will just hide the element and does not take any space of the element.
  • “visibility:hidden” – This also hides the element and will take space for the element and this will affect the entire layout of the document.

34) What is the property used for formatting the texts in CSS?

Property – “white-space” is used for formatting the text.

35) List out the possible values for attribute – “Position” in CSS?
Below are the list of possible values for attribute – “Position” –
  • Static
  • Inherit
  • Fixed
  • Absolute
  • Relative
36) Which property is used for underlining the link in CSS?

Property – “text-decoration” is used for underlining the link.

37) How to give a line break using span in CSS?

“display: block” can be used with “span” element to add a line break.

<span style=” display: block” />

38) Can I give more than one css class to a HTML element?

Yes we can give more than one css class to a HTML element.

39) How to add comments in CSS?

Below is the sample style for adding the comments –

/* test comment */

40) Which property can be used for aligning the text in the document?

Property – “text- align” can be used for aligning the text in the document.

41) How we can set a wait cursor by CSS?

Below is the line to set the wait cursor –

document.body.style.cursor = ‘wait’;

42) What you mean by pseudo classes in CSS?

Pseudo classes will allow you to identify the HTML elements. These classes are specified with “:” and pseudo class and element name.

a:hover {font-color: green;}

43) How to give rounded corners in CSS3?

Rounded corners can be given to any element using the property – “border-radius”.

44) List out the properties of rounded corners in CSS3?

Below are the properties of rounded corners –

  • border-radius
  • border-bottom-right-radius
  • border-bottom-left-radius
  • border-top-right-radius
  • border-top-left-radius

45) Which are the new backgrounds are added in CSS3?

Below are the new background properties are added in CSS3-

  • background-origin
  • background-clip
  • background-size

46) Mention the syntax for adding multiple background images in CSS3?

Below is the syntax for adding multiple background images –
background-image: url(test1.gif), url(test2.gif);

47) What you mean by word wrapping in CSS3?
Word wrapping means breaking the long words to next line. Below is the example for that –
.wordwraptestclass
{
 word-wrap:break-word;
}
48) What is the main difference between CSS and CSS3?

CSS3 have new features like – Model, Selectors, Backgrounds, Text effects, Animators etc. which were not there in CSS.

49) How we can create text shadow and box shadow in CSS3?

Box shadow can be created like this –

box-shadow: 5px 5px 2px #fffff;

Text shadow can be created like this –

text-shadow: 5px 5px 2px #fffff;

50) List out the new texts added in CSS3?

Below are the list of texts added in CSS3 –

  • Word-wrap
  • Text-overflow
  • Word- break

51) How we can use transition effect in CSS3?

Below are the two things to be specified to create a transition effect –

  • Duration of the effect
  • CSS property to be added for an effect

52) List out the properties of transition in CSS3?

Below are the properties of transition in CSS3 –

  • Transition-delay
  • transition-property
  • transition-duration
  • transition-timing-function

53) List out the possible “Position” attribute values in CSS?

Below are the list of possible “Position” values –

  • Fixed
  • Inherit
  • Absolute
  • Static
  • Relative

54) What are the types of gradients in CSS3?

Below are the types of gradients in CSS3 –

  • Radial gradients
  • Linear gradients

55) List out the text properties of CSS3?

Below are the list of text properties used in CSS3 –

  • word-wrap
  • word-break
  • text-overflow

56) Explain opacity in CSS3?

Opacity is used to hide or show an element in CSS3. Value – ‘0’ to hide the element and value ‘1’ means showing an element.

Below is the sample for the same –

<p style = “opacity:0”> Hide Text </p>

57) What is the difference between “cell-padding” and “cell-spacing”?

  • “Cell-Padding” – This used to leave the space between the content of cell and wall/border of the cell.
  • “Cell-Spacing” – This used to specify the space between the cells.

58) What would be the difference between “width:auto” and “width:100%” in CSS?

“width:auto” reaches to the full width and it will subtract borders, paddings, margins etc. from the available space where as “width:100%” will force the element to be as wide as its parent element and will add additional spacing which can cause some problems.

59) How to change the color of anchor tag in CSS?

For changing the anchor tag color using CSS –

a:link {
 color: #FFFFFF; 
}

60) What is the syntax to display an image in anchor tag in CSS?

Below is the syntax to display image in anchor tag in CSS –

a {
 background-image: url(MyImage.png); 
}

61) Can we declare css classes more than once?

Yes. We can declare css classes more than once.

62) Why to use @import tag at the top of CSS file?

@Import tag is used to at the top to avoid the rules to override.

63) Explain Media Queries in CSS3?

Media queries are used for doing below things –

  • For checking the height and width of a device.
  • For checking the height and width of a viewport.
  • Orientation
  • Resolution

64) List out the border properties in CSS?

Below are the list of properties for border in CSS –

  • Border-style
  • Border-width
  • Border-color
  • Border-top-style
  • Border-right-style
  • Border-bottom -style
  • Border-left-style etc.

65) How to combine the stylesheets?

We can combine the stylesheets using – “LINK” tag. Below is the syntax for the same –

<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="myfirst.css">
<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="mysecond.css">
<LINK REL=Stylesheet HREF="mythird.css">

66) How to avoid the repetitive background images using CSS?

Repetitive back ground images can be avoided using – “no-repeat”. Below is the syntax for the same –

body {
background-image: url(myImg.gif) no-repeat ;
}

67) Define short hand property in CSS?

Shorthand property is a property which can made up of multiple individual properties. Below is the sample example for the same –

h2 
{
 font-weight: bold;
 font-style: italic; 
 font-variant: normal;
 font-size: 20%;
}

As shown in the above example to reduce the size and complication of stylesheet file all the properties are merged so this is called shorthand property.

68) What is the option to place the paragraphs next to each other using CSS?

Below is the sample code for aligning the paragraphs next to each other –

<div style="float: left; width: 50%">MyParagraphText1</div>
<div style="float: left; width: 50%">MyParagraphText2</div>

69) What are CSS Lists types?

Below are the two CSS list types –

  • Ordered list (<ol>) – list items will be marked in numbers.
  • Unordered List (<ul>) – list items will be marked in bullets.

1. What is CSS ?

The full form of CSS is Cascading Style Sheets. It is a styling language which is simple enough for HTML elements. It is popular in web designing, and its application is common in XHTML also.

2. What is the origin of CSS ?

Standard Generalized Markup Language marked the beginning of style sheets in 1980s.

3. What are the different variations of CSS ?
The variations for CSS are:

  • CSS 1
  • CSS 2
  • CSS 2.1
  • CSS 3
  • CSS 4

4. What are the limitations of CSS ?

Limitations are:

  •  Ascending by selectors is not possible
  • Limitations of vertical control
  • No expressions
  • No column declaration
  • Pseudo-class not controlled by dynamic behavior
  • Rules, styles, targeting specific text not possible

5. What are the advantages of CSS ?

Advantages are:

  • Bandwidth
  • Site-wide consistency
  • Page reformatting
  • Accessibility
  • Content separated from presentation
CSS

CSS

6. What are CSS frameworks?

It is a pre-planned libraries, which allows easier and more standards-compliant webpage styling, using CSS language.

7. How block elements can be centered with CSS1?

Block level elements can be centered by:

The margin-left and margin-right properties can be set to some explicit value:

 

In this case, the left and right margins will be each, five ems wide since they split up the ten ems left over from (40em-30em). It was unnecessary for setting up an explicit width for the BODY element; it was done here for simplicity.

8. Who maintains the CSS specifications?

World Wide Web Consortium maintains the CSS specifications.

9. In how many ways can a CSS be integrated as a web page?

CSS can be integrated in three ways:

  • Inline: Style attribute can be used to have CSS applied HTML elements.
  • Embedded: The Head element can have a Style element within which the code can be placed.
  • Linked/ Imported: CSS can be placed in an external file and linked via link element.

10. What benefits and demerits do External Style Sheets have? 
Benefits:

  • One file can be used to control multiple documents having different styles.
  • Multiple HTML elements can have many documents, which can have classes.
  • To group styles in composite situations, methods as selector and grouping are used.

Demerits:

  • Extra download is needed to import documents having style information.
  • To render the document, the external style sheet should be loaded.
  • Not practical for small style definitions.

11. Discuss the merits and demerits of Embedded Style Sheets?
Merits of Embedded Style Sheets:

  • Multiple tag types can be created in a single document.
  • Styles, in complex situations, can be applied by using Selector and Grouping methods.
  • Extra download is unnecessary.

Demerits of Embedded Style Sheets:

  • Multiple documents cannot be controlled.

12. What does CSS selector mean?

A string equivalent of HTML elements by which declarations or a set of it, is declared and is a link that can be referred for linking HTML and Style sheet is CSS selector.

13. Enlist the media types CSS allows? 

The design and customization of documents are rendered by media. By applying media control over the external style sheets, they can be retrieved and used by loading it from the network.

14. Differentiate logical tags from physical tags?

  • While physical tags are also referred to as presentational mark-up, logical tags are useless for appearances.
  • Physical tags are newer versions while logical tags are old and concentrate on content.

15. Differentiate Style Sheet concept from HTML?

While HTML provides easy structure method, it lacks styling, unlike Style sheets. Moreover, style sheets have better browser capabilities and formatting options.

16. Describe ‘ruleset’?

Ruleset : Selectors can be attached to other selectors to be identified by ruleset.

It has two parts:

  • Selector, e.g. R and
  • declaration {text-indent: 11pt}

17. Comment on the Case-sensitivity of CSS ?

Although, there are no case-sensitivity of CSS, nevertheless font families, URL’s of images, etc is. Only when XML declarations along with XHTML DOCTYPE are being used on the page, CSS is case -sensitive.

18. Define Declaration block?

A catalog of directions within braces consisting of property, colon and value is called declaration block.
e.g.: [property 1: value 3]

19. Enlist the various fonts’ attributes?

They are:

  • Font-style
  • Font-variant
  • Font-weight
  • Font-size/line-height
  • Font-family
  • Caption
  • Icon

 

20. Why is it easy to insert a file by importing it?

Importing enables combining external sheets to be inserted in many sheets. Different files and sheets can be used to have different functions. Syntax:

@import notation, used with <Style> tag.

21. What is the usage of Class selector?

Selectors that are unique to a specific style, are called CLASS selectors. Declaration of style and association with HTML can be made through this. Syntax:

Classname
it can be A-Z, a-z or digits.
.top {font: 14em ;}, class selector
<Body class= “top”> this class is associated with element </body>

22. Differentiate Class selector from ID selector?

While an overall block is given to class selector, ID selector prefers only a single element differing from other elements. In other words, ID are uniques while classes are not. Its possible that an element has both class and ID.

23. Can more than one declaration be added in CSS?

Yes, it can be achieved by using a semicolon.

24. What is Pseudo-elements ?

Pseudo-elements are used to add special effects to some selectors.  CSS in used to apply styles in HTML mark-up. In some cases when extra mark-up or styling is not possible for the document, then there is a feature available in CSS known as pseudo-elements. It will allow extra mark-up to the document without disturbing the actual document.

25. How to overrule underlining Hyperlinks?

Control statements and external style sheets are used to overrule underlining Hyperlinks.

E.g.:

 

26. What happens if 100% width is used along with floats all across the page?

While making the float declaration, 1 pixel is added every time it is used in the form of the border, and   even more float is allowed thereafter.

27. Can default property value be restored through CSS? If yes, how?

In CSS, you cannot revert back to old values due to lack of default values. The property can be re- declared to get the default property.

28. Enlist the various Media types used?

Different media has different properties as they are case insensitive.

They are:

  • Aural – for sound synthesizers and speech
  • Print – gives a preview of the content when printed
  • Projection- projects the CSS on projectors.
  • Handheld- uses handheld devices.
  • Screen- computers and laptop screens.

29. What is CSS Box Model and what are its elements?

This box defines design and layout of elements of CSS. The elements are:

Margin: the top most layer, the overall structure is shown
Border: the padding and content option with a border around it is shown.  Background color affects the border.
Padding: Space is shown. Background colour affects the border.
Content: Actual content is shown.

30. What is contextual selector?

Selector used to select special occurrences of an element is called contextual selector. A space separates the individual selectors. Only the last element of the pattern is addressed in this kind of selector. For e.g.: TD P TEXT {color: blue}

31. Compare RGB values with Hexadecimal color codes ?

A color can be specified in two ways:

  • A color is represented by 6 characters i.e. hexadecimal color coding. It is a combination of numbers and letters and is preceded by #.       e.g.: g {color: #00cjfi}
  • A color is represented by a mixture of red, green and blue. The value of a color can also be specified. e.g.: rgb(r,g,b): In this type the values can be in between the integers 0 and 255. rgb(r%,g%,b%):  red, green and blue percentage is shown.

32. Define Image sprites with context to CSS ?

When a set of images is collaborated into one image, it is known as ‘Image Sprites’. As the loading every image on a webpage consumes time, using image sprites lessens the time taken and gives information quickly.

CSS coding:

 

In this case, only the part needed is used. The user can save substantial margin and time through this.

33. Compare Grouping and Nesting in CSS ?

Grouping:  Selectors can be grouped having the same values of property and the code be reduced.
E.g. :

 

It can be seen from the code that every element shares the same property. Rewriting can be avoided by writing each selector separated by a comma.

Nesting: Specifying a selector within a selector is called nesting.

 

34. How can the dimension be defined of an element ?

Dimension properties can be defined by:

  • Height
  • Max-height
  • Max-width
  • Min-height
  • Min-width
  • Width

35. Define float property of CSS?

By float property, the image can be moved to the right or the left along with the text to be wrapped around it. Elements before this property is applied do not change their properties.

36. How does Z index function?

Overlapping may occur while using CSS for positioning HTML elements. Z index helps in specifying the overlapping element. It is a number which can be positive or negative, the default value being zero.

37. What is graceful degradation?

In case the component fails, it will continue to work properly in the presence of a graceful degradation. The latest browser application is used when a webpage is designed. As it is not available to everyone, there is a basic functionality, which enables its use to a wider audience. In case the image is unavailable for viewing, text is shown with the alt tag.

38. What is progressive enhancement?

It’s an alternative to graceful degradation, which concentrates on the matter of the web. The functionality is same, but it provides an extra edge to users having the latest bandwidth. It has been into prominent use recently with mobile internet connections expanding their base.

39. How can backward compatibility be designed in CSS?

HTML sheet methods is collaborated with CSS and used accordingly.

40. How can the gap under the image be removed?

As images being inline elements are treated same as texts, so there is a gap left, which can be   removed by:

CSS

 

41. Why is @import only at the top?

@import is preferred only at the top, to avoid any overriding rules. Generally, ranking order is followed in most programming languages such as Java, Modula, etc. In C, the # is a prominent example of a @import being at the top.

42. Which among the following is more precedent: CSS properties or HTML procedures?

CSS is more precedent over HTML procedures. Browsers, which do not have CSS support, display HTML attributes.

43. What is Inline style?

The Inline style in a CSS is used to add up styling to individual HTML elements.

44.  How comments can be added in CSS?

The comments in CSS can be added with /* and */.

45. Define Attribute Selector ?

It is defined by a set of elements, value and its parts.

46. Define property?

A style, that helps in influencing CSS. E.g. FONT. They have corresponding values or properties within them, like FONT has different style like bold, italic etc.

47.  What is Alternate Style Sheet?

Alternate Style Sheets allows the user to select the style in which the page is displayed using the view>page style menu. Through Alternate Style Sheet, user can see a multiple version of the page on their needs and preferences.

48. Are quotes mandatory in URL’s?

Quotes are optional in URL’s, and it can be single or double.

49. What is at-rule?

Rule, which is applicable in the entire sheet and not partly, is known as at-rule. It is preceded by @ followed by A-Z, a-z or 0-9.

50. How can CSS be cascaded to mix with user’s personal sheet?

Properties can be a set in recommended places and the document modified for CSS to mix with user’s   personal sheet.